Not a mistletoe#1: not even a parasite

Viscum album – mistletoe – showing branching pattern

(the first of some blogs about mistletoe-themed plants)

The distinctive geometric branching of Viscum album, the classic mistletoe of legend, is one of its most distinguishing features. Each branch bifurcates once a year, creating an intricate pattern. Not all mistletoes have this property – for example the Phoradendron species used at Christmas in the US don’t – they look really quite ordinary, not like the European plant at all.

Mistletoe Cactus – Rhipsalis baccifera

But a few other plants do have a similar pattern – though they aren’t mistletoe. The best-known of these are, perhaps, species of Rhipsalis the so-called ‘Mistletoe Cacti’.

Mistletoe Cactus with fruit

There are about 35 species of Rhipsalis, all true cacti with leaves reduced to spines and thick photosynthetic stems, some flattened but some cylindrical.  It is the cylindrical-stemmed ones that are known as the mistletoe cacti as these stems, when they divide, seem to echo the growth of our mistletoe Viscum album.  Their fruits even look vaguely like mistletoe berries.

These are ‘jungle cacti’ from Central and South America, with several forms and species popular as house plants.  Some are quite ‘hairy’ with fine spines coating the stems but others are virtually spine free. One of the commonest seen is Rhipsalis baccifera which, in its baldest, most spine/hairless form, is quite distinctive.

Some other Rhipsalis species

They are easily grown from stem fragments, though these take a while to root.  Here (below) is my current specimen, grown from three tiny stem fragments I picked up from the ground underneath a neglected garden centre specimen some months ago (I know a bargain when I spot one!)

No flowers yet, so no berries, but it’s now growing rapidly so I hope for some soon next year…

 

Is a Mistletoe Market about mistletoe?

Or just a generic Christmassy-themed retail-fest?

The phrase Mistletoe Market is fairly uncommon here in the UK – the mistletoe auctions at Tenbury Wells are sometimes called this, but not often.  We also have a few Mistletoe Fairs – some more mistletoey than others (of which more in another post soon) – but we have few events formally called a Mistletoe Market.

But cross the atlantic and the US is brimming with ‘mistletoe markets’, some lasting just a day or so, some lasting weeks, some as early as November, some not until nearer Christmas.  These are real, regular, pre-Christmas phenomena.

So what are they, and where, if at all, does mistletoe feature?  Mistletoe in the US is, as regular Mistletoe Diary readers will know, a different and much less attractive species than the species we have here in Europe, so it would be surprising if these markets were actually about mistletoe – the local species aren’t really special enough!

And of course they’re not about mistletoe, the word is used as a label for a seasonal pre-Christmas retail event.  But that doesn’t matter – it’s still a reflection of mistletoe as a cultural plant, harking back centuries, possibly millennia, to mid-winter customs with the plant.

Many of these Mistletoe Markets are run by good causes – Junior Leagues, Schools and other community groups. Others are run by city authorities and a few seem to be firmly commercially-run.

Some (fairly random) examples:

Marietta, Georgia
Marietta, Georgia

Marietta, Georgia – raising funds for community programs

Mistletoe Market is returning, Junior League of Cobb-Marietta is excited for the return of the beloved holiday shopping event.  We are thrilled to bring back the spirit of Mistletoe Market, raising funds to support many community service programs. You can’t go wrong by Shopping Small and For a Cause!  Mistletoe Market will be bringing together 50 plus specialty merchants from across the Southeast. Join us as we get the holiday season started!


Oklahoma City (Oklahoma’s state flower used to be mistletoe!) – raising funds to (their caps not mine) EMPOWER volunteers to IMPACT our community and ENRICH lives.

Mistletoe Market is Oklahoma City’s premier shopping event featuring unique merchandise from more than 100 carefully selected vendors from Oklahoma and across the country. Shop for clothing, gourmet foods, gifts, children’s items, jewelry and more – we promise you’ll find everything you need and more!

Mistletoe Market raises funds to support the mission of the Junior League of Oklahoma City. Proceeds from Mistletoe Market go to fund the Junior League of Oklahoma City’s health-based community projects in the Oklahoma City metro and helps the Junior League send trained volunteers into the community.

Thanks to the dollars raised at Mistletoe Market since 1994, JLOC has been able to distribute more than $1.5 million to Oklahoma City through funding of community projects!


Franklin, Tennessee, raising funds for Franklin High School Class of 2019 Project Graduation

Mistletoe Market is Franklin High School’s Christmas seasonal warm-up event, featuring crafts, gifts, decor and treats.

More than 135 vendors will be on hand from 10 a.m. until 4 p.m. on Saturday Nov 10 at the school, 810 Hillsboro Road, Franklin.

Free parking and free admission.

 

Grove City, Ohio, raising funds for the Grove City Food Pantry

The Mistletoe Market will run from 10am to 6pm on December 7, 2019.  Reminiscent of the German Kristkindl Market, this festive Holiday Shopping Market brings old world charm & warmth to Grove City’s Historic Town Center

Breakfast with Santa. Come to these Festive Market Spaces for your unique, one of a kind, Holiday Gift Shopping
• In Town Center Businesses
• Inside City Hall’s Council Chambers & Lobby
Find Selected Retailers & Fine Crafters for Exclusive Holiday Gift Items & Winter Wares


Huntingdon, West Virginia, raising funds to promote physical and mental wellness for women and children

The Junior League of Huntington’s Mistletoe Market is a one-day shopping event that kicks off the holiday shopping season. Proceeds from this event help us with our initiatives on promoting physical and mental wellness for women and children. Mistletoe Market 2019 will be held at the Ramada Limited located at 3094 16th Street Road in Huntington, WV on Friday, November 8th from 4:00 pm-10:00 pm. If you purchase a VIP ticket you are granted early access from 4:00 pm-6:00 pm along with a wine glass full of coupons.


Abingdon, Virginia, supporting the William King Museum of Art with proceeds benefiting curatorial and educational programs

Mistletoe Market celebrates its 21st anniversary on October 31 – November 3, 2019 at Southwest Virginia Higher Education Center. Highlights of the Market include $500 in shopping spree opportunities, Mistletoe Market Cafe, and daily door prizes. Over 80 Merchants from 15 states bring a variety of items including: gifts for the gardener in your family, jewelry including earrings, bracelets and necklaces, holiday decor, clothing, and antiques. In addition to our cafe there are gourmet food vendors with fantastic holiday treats and food trucks to keep your energy high as you shop til’ you drop.


Houston, Texas – a commercially-run event

Shop till you drop at the Midtown Mistletoe Market. This destination, high energy NYC style holiday inspired market features contemporary craft, makers, fine foods, lots of activities, DIY gift stations, live entertainment and artists selling their original and series works, located in the heart of Midtown Houston in Midtown Park. Look for the beautiful outdoor setting with custom made red and white tents and holiday décor. Sip, stop and play Santa is on his way.


These are just a few – have a google if you want to find out about all the others!

Here in the UK we seem to call similar events (though we don’t actually have many of them) Mistletoe Fairs – I’ll say more about those another time.


Mistletoe Information: for general mistletoe info visit the Mistletoe Pages website.

And for UK mistletoe books, cards or kits to grow your own mistletoe visit the English Mistletoe Shop website at englishmistletoeshop.co.uk

The Spectacled Flowerpecker – a new bird that likes mistletoe

Picture by Chien C Lee

Ten years ago, deep in the Borneo rainforest, a new species of bird was spotted feeding on berries from one of the local mistletoe species.  Small, grey but quite pretty it was given the name Spectacled Flowerpecker – but not, at the time, a formal scientific name because that needs formal examination and description – which means a bird in the hand, not in the bush.

The preliminary announcements about it in 2010 hailed it as a perfect example of how little we still know about the species of our planet and how diverse biodiversity actually is.

The canopy level walkways where the bird can be spotted. Picture by Chien C Lee

Fast-forward 10 years, to 2019, and this little bird still hadn’t been formally described and named.  Primarily because it is so small, just 2 inches tall, and is so difficult to spot, let alone capture.  It feeds largely in the forest canopy up amongst the mistletoe plants whose berries it eats – most sightings have been from the forest walkways erected in the canopy as a new form of ecotourism. Click here for a blog describing some 2017 sightings.  An account on the Audubon website describes the difficulties in documenting it.

This year, 2019, a specimen was finally caught, an incidental capture as part of a wider study with mist nets, and so it was properly documented and given a formal scientific name: Dicaeum dayakorum.  The specific part is in honour of the indigenous Dayak people who live in and help protect the bird’s native forests.  Here’s the header (click to enlarge) from the formal paper describing it – the full paper is at https://www.biotaxa.org/Zootaxa/article/view/zootaxa.4686.4.1

The genus Dicaeum, by the way, includes numerous other species of flowerpecker, many also feeding on mistletoes.  These include the Australian Mistletoe Bird Dicaeum hirundinaceum which featured in one of the BBC TV’s  David Attenborough natural history series some years ago. The broadcast clip showed a bird wiping the semi-digested mistletoe berry, complete with seed, from it’s er, bum, onto a branch. Very efficient. It’s not clear whether the Spectacled Flowerpecker is that good or whether it’s more of a hit’n’miss mistletoe spreader like our own Mistle Thrush (see various older mistletoe diary entries …).

 

Mistletoe seed distribution – why leave it all to the birds?

Try doing it yourself with a Mistletoe Grow-Kit from the English Mistletoe Shop

Details at  https://englishmistletoeshop.co.uk

 

 

Missing mistletoe? It’ll be back soon!

Yes, it’s almost that time again, the mistletoe season. Indeed my first mistletoe gig this autumn is less than 2 weeks away, so I need to get back into mistletoe mode very soon.

Here, for starters, are some diary dates for Tenbury Wells. Only two auctions this year – on the mornings of Tuesday 26th November and 3rd December – details at https://nickchampion.co.uk/auctions/holly-and-mistletoe/

The main Festival Day, complete with Druid Ceremony is on Saturday 7th December.

For Mistletoe Diary this year I hope (do I say this every year?) to cover a wide range of issues – including some interesting ecological points, comparisons with other parasitic plants, and, amongst other cultural angles, re-visiting mistletoe in Art Nouveau designs. This phenomenon was a particular feature of continental European design and I hope discussing these will help (me at least), in a very modest way, assuage some of the current crazy UK v continental Europe tensions.

So here, to kick off, is one of the plates from Edmond Lachenal’s mistletoe dinner service, designed for subscribers to Les Annales Politiques et Littéraires in the late 1890s.

This is just a teaser pic for now, I’ll say more about Monsieur Lachenal as the season progresses…

Mistletoe auction reports – for those who like figures

Very busy with mistletoe stuff this season – I’ve got loads of things to blog about but am having a bit of difficulty finding the time…

I usually post a summary of the wholesale mistletoe prices at the Tenbury Wells Auctions – so here, for the record, are this year’s figures, taken from Nick Champion’s reports:

  • Tuesday 27th November 2018
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £3.00 per kg to average £1.75
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £1.00 per kg to average £0.50
  • Tuesday 4th December 2018
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £6.00 per kg to average £3.50
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £2.50 per kg to average £1.50
  • Tuesday 11th December 2018
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £4.00 per kg to average £2.50
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £1.00 per kg to average £0.50

Compare these to 2017’s prices, which were much lower. 2018’s sales, to use Nick Champion’s words, “saw a terrific trade on best quality lots”

  • Tuesday 28th November 2017
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £2.50 per kg to average £1.25
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £0.75p per kg to average £0.25p
  • Tuesday 5th December 2017
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £3.00 per kg to average £1.50
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £1.00 per kg to average £0.50p
  • Tuesday 12th December 2017
    Mistletoe 1st Quality to £1.50 per kg to average £0.75p
    Mistletoe 2nd Quality to £0.50 per kg to average £0.25p

As usual do note these are wholesale prices for freshly cut mistletoe – the retail price will be much higher as the material needs to be sorted, a lot of it discarded (there’s a lot of waste in mistletoe!) and the best bits trimmed and prepared for sale. The retail price will largely reflect the time taken to do all that.

Bee-lieving in mistletoe berries

Mistletoe berries need bees – a fact that’s often overlooked when people talk about the ‘crop’. They interpret berry numbers as being a function of the recent summer or autumn weather, and barely give a thought to their real origin – from flowers that need to be pollinated.

Flowers that open in February. And need to be pollinated by insects – bees especially. It’s the amount of pollination that determines the number of berries – and that depends on bees and other insects in February.

This comes up again and again when I give talks on mistletoe – which I’ve been doing a lot recently – when I explain how slow-growing mistletoe is; the flower buds slowly developing in the year before, opening in February and, if pollinated, developing oh so slowly over 10-12 months to produce mature berries. By which time there are new flower buds ready for the new season. Berries may be a year old before they are fully ripe.

FoEbackgroundGetting back to the bees I was pleased to see the Friends of the Earth ‘Christmas Bee Saver Kit’ yesterday – which they’ll send you in return for a donation. Why pleased? Because it features a picture of mistletoe complete with mistletoe flower buds, right next to a bee. It just seemed a nice touch.

beedetailFoEWhether it is deliberate (with FoE knowing their mistletoe biology) or just an accident of a Christmas-themed design (with FoE just commissioning a seasonal design) I don’t know. But I like it either way.

[the flower buds are the central buds between the leaves]

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Berries need birds – or people – too, to get their seeds planted. If you want to have a go try a mistletoe growing kit from the English Mistletoe Shop

The Kissing Tree – a mistletoe book for children

As part of the Tenbury Wells Mistletoe Festival 2018 a new children’s book, The Kissing Tree, has been published, written by local author Helen Wendy Cooper.  It is part of the Tenbury Mistletoe Association’s promotions this season.

The story centres on Jack the Jackdaw who is searching for the perfect tree for mistletoe to grow on – but is thwarted by a Robin that eats all his mistletoe berries. An imaginative and educational book for children, showing how mistletoe needs a tree to grow on and that berries/seeds are spread by birds.  So far so good.

My only complaint, which mistletoe advocates may well have anticipated already, is that neither Jackdaws or Robins generally eat mistletoe berries!  Now if it had been “Mike the Mistle Thrush” being thwarted by a mischievous Blackcap that would have been fine.  And even appropriate, as Blackcaps ARE usurping Mistle Thrushes as distributors of mistletoe.  So there is a real life story that could be referenced here.

So, educational in telling how mistletoe grows on trees and is spread by birds, but, sadly, suggesting entirely the wrong birds.

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[of course you don’t need a bird, you can plant the seeds yourself – find out how here or buy a Grow-Your-Own Kit here]

Does the Mistletoe Weevil have its own parasite?

In previous years I’ve reported on the 6 mistletoe insects we have in Britain – and how we know very little about them. Indeed 2 of the 6 were only discovered here in the years since 2000 and the distribution and biology of all 6 are hardly known. But all are definitely tied to mistletoe, as they eat nothing else (except the Anthocoris bug, which eats the others).

The six are:  a moth Celypha woodiana (the Mistletoe Marble Moth), a beetle Ixapion variegatum (the Mistletoe Weevil), three sap-sucking bugs Hypseloecus visci, Pinalitus viscicola and Cacopsylla visci and the predatory bug Anthocoris visci

The weevil lays its eggs inside mistletoe stems and the larva develops inside, only emerging as an adult weevil and leaving a distinctive exit hole. Affected shoots often show die-back of the terminal bud.  And that’s about all that is known about it. A simple life-cycle, no complications. Or none known.

However, a recent paper by Ian Thompson and Godfrey Blunt in Field Studies journal recording studies of invertebrate communities in Shropshire orchards makes an intriguing observation. The authors made a special effort to record mistletoe insects within the orchards they visited, including  collecting some mistletoe shoots with bud die-back to see if weevils emerged.   Some weevils did indeed emerge from some of the samples.  But from others a tiny parasitic wasp emerged instead of the weevil.  It was from a genus of wasps, Triaspis, that specialises in parasitising the eggs and larvae of beetles.

The obvious inference is that this wasp was parasitising the Mistletoe Weevil larvae.  The wasp proved impossible to identify to species – and so may, itself, be newly discovered and might, perhaps, be a dedicated specialist only parasitising the Mistletoe Weevil.  Which only eats mistletoe, itself a parasite.

So we could have a new species and a new parasite – of an insect that eats a parasite.

But no-one, yet, knows…

Reference:
Ian Thompson and Godfrey Blunt (2018) 1 Invertebrate Communities Of Old Traditional Orchards In South Shropshire (Vc40)  Field Studies 2018

Mistletoe harvesting underway – everywhere…

The first of this season’s mistletoe auctions is happening on Tuesday morning – and I’m guessing that a lot of stock has already arrived on site, with more coming tomorrow. This is ‘proper’ traditional mistletoe, gathered from the old apple orchards across Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire. If you want to attend you’ll need to be at Burford House Garden Stores, Burford, Tenbury Wells, WR15 8HQ on Tuesday morning. And you’ll have another chance on the following two Tuesdays.

This traditional mistletoe is, of course, the mistletoe species native to northern Europe, and the only species we have in Britain. It is the origin of all those myths and legends about mistletoe and the true mistletoe of Christmas kissing.

But there are many other mistletoes around – and in places where they don’t have Viscum album, other mistletoe species are substituted at Christmas. It’s arguably cheating, as it is our species that the kissing tradition belongs too, but it’s fun – and why not consider all mistletoes as kissing plants?

The harvest of these other mistletoes is also underway – particularly, as usual, in Texas where the Phoradendron mistletoes take the place of Viscum album, growing on Mesquite trees instead on Apple.  Texas has a long tradition of sending its mistletoe across the USA and every year there are stories about the harvest and how it’s looking.

One particular Texan story caught my attention this week – from Mason County where eight-year old Jarrett Worrell is taking the lead on his family’s new venture selling mistletoe online.  You can watch and read about him and his family talk about their mistletoe venture here: https://www.kxan.com/news/local/austin/mason-family-launches-business-to-send-texas-mistletoe-holiday-cheer/1614358422

And, if you’re in the US, you can order Jarrett’s mistletoe here:  https://masonmountainmistletoe.com/

Mistletoe ‘crop’ 2018 – looking good, ripening early?

aimage006redAlmost November, so time to look at how mistletoe is looking for Christmas this year. And, again (this is several years in a row now) it’s looking fairly good.  The female plants I’ve looked at are festooned with berries and it would seem we have yet another ‘bumper crop’.

Of course it’s not a crop, not in the conventional sense of something grown for harvest, as most simply grows where it wants to and isn’t actively encouraged.  But in areas and habitats where it grows well – primarily the SW midlands in mature (often over-mature) apple orchards – it can seem like a crop, and certainly can be harvested like one.

One unusual aspect this season is that many of the berries are whitening up already – whereas they normally stay green well into November.  Why, I don’t know, but it does seem consistent with many other berries and fruits ripening earlier than usual this year. So far it’s only whitening from green, the later change from opaque white to translucent white usually only happens in December/January, so it will be interesting to see if that is early this year too.

First wholesale auctions of apple orchard mistletoe are at the end of November – I’ll report then on how the plants have matured, and what prices are like.

The pictures here were all taken in Gloucestershire Orchard Trust’s orchards at Longney, on the banks of the Severn just south of Gloucester, last week.

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